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The Lexis of Cloth and Clothing Project

Reference Dictionaries Cited in the Lexis of Cloth and Clothing


Old English:

[DOE] Angus Cameron, Ashley Crandell Amos &  Antonette DiPaolo Healey (ed.), A Dictionary of Old English. Toronto: University of Toronto Press (1986-). [Fascicles covering A-G published; the published material and source corpus are online at the link below:

[BTD] Joseph Bosworth and Thomas Northcote Toller (ed.), An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary based on the manuscript collections of Joseph Bosworth. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1898); Supplement, ed. T. Northcote Toller. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1921).

Middle English:

[MED] Sherman M. Kuhn, Hans Kurath & Robert E. Lewis (ed.), Middle English Dictionary. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press (1952-2001). The entire dictionary is hosted online at the link below:

All Periods, including Modern English:

[OED] James Murray et al. (ed.). The Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2nd edition 1989; 3rd edition in progress, 1989-. The third edition is ongoing, and hosted at the link below:


[DOST] William A. Craigie et al. (ed.), A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue: from the twelfth century to the end of the seventeenth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Oxford: Oxford University Press(1931-2002). The dictionary is hosted online at the link below:


[DIL] Carl Marstrander et al. (ed.), A Dictionary of the Irish Language, based mainly on Old- and Middle-Irish materials. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy (1913-1976). Use has been made of the online verion, eDIL, hosted at the link below. This version incorporates a number of corrections.

Scottish Gaelic

A project to create a historical dictionary of Scottish Gaelic is under way, but as yet has not published any fascicles. References to specifically Scottish Gaelic forms are from: Edward Dwelly, The illustrated Gaelic-English dictionary: containing every Gaelic word and meaning given in all previously published dictionaries, and a great number never in print before: to which is prefixed A concise Gaelic grammar. 1st edition 1920; 12th edition Glasgow: Akerbeltz (2011).


[GPC] R. J. Thomas et al. (ed.), Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 1st edition 1950-2002; 2nd edition in progress, 2002-. There is currently no online edition, though one is planned for the future.


There is no historical dictionary of Cornish. Citations have either been provided by the Lexis team (references given in the database), or in some instances given as comparanda from Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, where references are as for the bibliographic conventions of that dictionary.


A very few Manx forms, showing developments not found in Irish or Scottish Gaelic, and potentially dating to the medieval period, have been included. There is no historical dictionary of Manx; the few forms given are from Archibald Cregeen, Cregeen’s Manx Dictionary.Douglas: Brown Publishers for the Manx Language Society (1910), and Douglas C. Fargher, Fargher’s English-Manx Dictionary. Douglas: Shearwater Press (1979).


[DMLBS] R. E. Latham, David Howlett & Richard A. Ashdowne (ed.), Dictionary of Medieval Latin from British Sources.London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy (1975-). [The Lexis Project has made use of materials as far as Fascicle 14, as far as SAL. The DMLBS will be completed  by the end of 2013 with fascicle SYR-Z, after which an online edition is planned.]

R. E. Latham, Revised Medieval Latin Word-List.London: Oxford University Press for the British Academy (1965)

[NCLCL] Anthony Harvey & Jane Power (ed.), The non-Classical lexicon of Celtic Latinity. Volume I: A-H. Turnhout: Brepols (2005). [The first lexicon publication of the Dictionary of Medieval Latin from Celtic Sources, hosted by the Royal Irish Academy.]


[AND] William Rothwell, Louise W. Stone & T. B. W. Reid (ed.), Anglo-Norman Dictionary. London: Modern Humanities Research Association (1st edition, 1972-1992; second edition in progress). The dictionary is hosted online at www.anglo-norman.net . The online edition incorporates material from the AND second edition [AND2], as far as the letter M.

Some comparable citations from continental forms of medieval French have been provided from four dictionaries:

Frédéric E. Godefroy (ed.), Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle. Paris: Librairie des sciences et des arts (1937-8).

[DEAF] Kurt Baldinger et al. (ed.), Dictionnaire Étymologique de l’Ancien Français. Québec [City]: Les Presses de l'Université Laval (1974-).

[TLF] Paul Imbs (ed.), Trésor de la langue française: dictionnaire de la langue du XIXe et du XXe siècle (1789-1960). Paris: Centre de recherche pour un trésor de la langue française (1971-1994).

Algirdas Greimas and Teresa Keane (ed.), Dictionnaire du Moyen Français. Paris: Larousse (2001).

Old Norse

No textual sources for the relevant Norse lexis in the medieval period are indisputably of British origin; however, reference has been made to a standard dictionary of Old Norse:

Richard Cleasby & Guðbrandur Vigfússon (ed.), An Icelandic-English Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2nd edition, 1957).

A very small number of Norn words, possibly with history extending back to the medieval period, have been included (most Norn words cannot be securely dated to a period earlier than the eighteenth century, though the majority are likely to be far older). The source dictionary is:

Jakob Jakobsen, An Etymological Dictionary of the Norn Language in Shetland.2 vols. London: David Nutt (1932).